New findings prove an unexpected importance salt marsh to horseshoe crabs.
Horseshoe crabs are occasionally seen mating and laying eggs in the marsh. But the environment was previously assumed to be unsuitable for egg development. It’s one of the great natural spectacles on the Atlantic coast. Every spring, masses of horseshoe crabs come ashore and crowd sandy beaches to mate and lay eggs.
Such beaches are the best and possibly only environment where horseshoe crab eggs can successfully hatch and grow. But South Carolina Department of Natural Resources biologists recently confirmed that horseshoe crab eggs and hatchlings can also survive in a surprisingly different environment – the salt marsh*. Their findings were recently published in the peer-reviewed journal “The Biological Bulletin”.
“We’ve known for a long time that horseshoe crabs spawn in the salt marsh.”
“But we thought those eggs didn’t survive the low-oxygen environment of pluff mud.” said assistant scientist Dr. Michael Kendrick. Kendrick leads horseshoe crab research at SCDNR. “The adaptability of this species to successfully reproduce in a wide range of habitat types really highlights one of the reasons why this group of animals has existed on the planet for more than 480 million years.”
The American horseshoe crab is an ancient marine invertebrate.
It is recognized by its pointed tail and domed ‘head,’ which protects six pairs of walking and feeding feet. Although they spend much of their lives offshore feeding on small clams and worms in the seafloor, they’re not uncommon on South Carolina beaches – particularly when they come ashore under new and full moons to mate and lay eggs during the spring.
Horseshoe crabs play a critical role in the coastal ecosystem and human health: their eggs are an important food sources for tens of thousands of shorebirds making long migrations, and a compound in their blood is collected and used to detect contamination in vaccines and medical devices.
Horseshoe crab numbers have steeply declined in places such as New York.
But the most recent study by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (to which SCDNR biologists contribute) found the Southeast’s horseshoe crab population to be in “good” condition. In an article published in 2019 in the peer-reviewed “Journal of Shellfish Research”, based on sampling conducted in 2014, SCDNR geneticists found little evidence of inbreeding, suggesting that the state’s horseshoe crabs are relatively healthy.
As coastal South Carolina continues to grow and change, however, biologists will continue monitoring where crabs are spawning, how many there are and the state of their genetic health.
SCDNR biologists observed horseshoe crabs spawning in the salt marsh. The found viable eggs contributing to the population. These flat, tidally flooded wetlands between land and sea define much of the South Carolina coast. But their importance to horseshoe crabs is not well understood.
In June 2019, staff collected samples of horseshoe crab eggs at 28 locations in marshes and 32 locations on beaches.
From each of these samples, they looked at a minimum of 50 eggs, embryos and trilobites (young horseshoe crabs) under a microscope and classified the developmental stage of each. Using statistical computing software, they then analyzed for habitat differences among each of seven distinct developmental stages.
They found healthy horseshoe crab eggs, embryos and trilobites in both marsh and beach locations.
This demonstrated that eggs laid in the salt marsh could in fact successfully hatch and develop despite apparent sub-optimal conditions.
However, they also found significant differences in the two habitat types. The prevalence of early and middle developmental stages was similar across habitats. Beach sites were more likely to have advanced-stage trilobites. Marshes also had a higher number of discolored eggs, which are likely less viable.
Because the surveys represent just a snapshot in time, the authors are conducting additional research this year. This determined whether these distinctions reflect differences in spawning timing (horseshoe crabs could lay on beaches at different times than in marshes) or differences in the rates of development.